Composing the end of your manuscript

All technical information should be described in the following sections of an article:


Any information about any assistance received when carrying out the work and preparing the manuscript:

  • acknowledgment of helpful discussions, credit to colleagues and reviewers (in special cases);
  • acknowledgment of provision of materials, scientific data, computer equipment, instruments, and devices for temporary use;
  • acknowledgment of studies in shared use centers (core facilities);
  • acknowledgment of technical assistance in manuscript preparation;
  • everything else that is a useful contribution but insufficient for being considered coauthor ship of the work.


Information on grants and other sources of financial support. Please do not use acronyms or abbreviations; use full names of organizations.


This section is MANDATORY when submitting articles to biomedical and life sciences journals. For more details, see the link.

  • For biomedical journals, this section must be present in the manuscript, regardless of whether animals and people were involved in the experiments in this particular article or not.
  • Please do not include this information inside the main text. It should be in this section.
  • We kindly ask you to take into account the obvious considerations that not just mammals are animals and that research involving animals can conducted outside the laboratory.

For other, nonbiological journals, only a conflict of interest subsection is required and compliance with ethical standards should be required only for those articles in which experiments involving animals or people are actually described.


This should be a separate section for nonbiological journals. For more details, see the link.


This section is included if the article is published in open access mode. In that case, the Creative Commons license should be indicated. For more details, see the link.


This section is optional and describes the contribution of each author to the study. This should include information on how each author contributed to the work (preferable variant) or contributions as a percentage (less desirable). For example:

Authors X1, X2, and X3 designed the experiments; authors X4 and X5 synthesized the samples and carried out their electrochemical study. Authors X3 and X4 carried out studies using Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Authors X1 and X6 participated in data processing. Author X7 made theoretical calculations. Authors X1, X2, and X7 contributed to manuscript preparation. All authors participated in the discussions.


This section notifies of the availability of supplementary materials. For more details, see the link.

Please exclude Appendices from the article and put them in supplementary materials.

Please do not place supplementary materials on third-party websites. Submit them together with the manuscript.


This section may include

  • Nonstandard references. For instance materials that cannot be published but are available on request. For instance:

    The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The data are not publicly available due to restrictions (for example, information that could compromise the privacy of research participants).

  • Additional links to the authors' profiles (e.g., ORCID).
  • Names of trademarks in the appropriate languages and references to them.
  • Information on the original or associated articles if the article is published in several languages.
  • Information on conferences, workshops, and other meetings related to the article.