The Cephalopod Macrosystem: A Historical Review,
the Present State of Knowledge, and Unsolved Problems:
1. Major Features and Overall Classification
of Cephalopod Mollusks
A. A. Shevyrev
Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya ul. 123, Moscow, 117997 Russia
Received October 12, 2004
AbstractA general classification of cephalopods, a vast group of extinct and living mollusks with unique bio-
logical organization and a rich evolutionary history is proposed. Major schemes of the classification in this
group are considered and analyzed. The earliest cephalopods are assigned to the subclass Ellesmeroceratoidea.
Other cephalopods are divided into seven subclasses: Endoceratoidea, Actinoceratoidea, Nautiloidea, Orthocer-
atoidea, Bactritoidea, Ammonoidea, and Coleoidea. This macrosystem most fully reflects the morphological
diversity and major developmental trends in cephalopod mollusks. Short diagnoses of the above subclasses are
Key words: cephalopod mollusks, biological organization, general classification.
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