Backward Waves and Negative Refraction
in Photonic (Electromagnetic) Crystals

P. A. Belov, K. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov


Received April 24, 2003

Abstract—A detailed review on excitation of backward waves and negative refraction in photonic (electromag-
netic) crystals is presented. Classification into forward and backward waves in linear media is considered in
relation to the phenomenon of refraction at the isotropic dielectric–crystalline medium interface. The role of
the interface orientation with respect to the intrinsic geometry of the medium is clarified. The feasibility of neg-
ative refraction in the absence of a backward wave is illustrated by simple examples; an example of negative
refraction and backward wave excitation in a nonmagnetic crystal are given.

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